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Data redundancy refers to visually encoding the data in more than one way—for example, including the unit values on a bar chart where the length of the bar also indicates value.

Redundancy helps recall and understanding. Both message and data redundancy make visualizations more memorable. Message redundancy presents the conclusion or message of the visualization in multiple ways to the viewer.

Visual redundancy should be balanced against clutter, and should not detract from the chart's emphasis.